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Saturday, 2 June 2012

How and when to use present perfect

The Present perfect

+                                                                     -
Subject+ have/has + past participle verb        Subject+ have/has not + past participle verb
I (I've)  
You (you've)      have     studied                                      Have not (haven't)    studied   
We (we've)
They (they've)                           
She (she's)
He (he's)         has         studied                                       has not (hasn't)        studied
It (it's)
Have/has + subject + past participle verb                       Short answer

Have     I              slept?                                  Yes,   I  have.            No, I have not (haven't).

Has    she         slept?                                      Yes, she has.             No, she has not (hasn't).    

There are three ways to use the present perfect...

  1. To talk about an experience in the past that has happened at least once, many times or never, without reference to when the event actually happened.

Have you ever been to Iceland?
How many times have you seen Titanic?
I've never eaten snails before.
He's met my mum quite a few times.

  1. To talk about events in the immediate past.

I've already called her three times today.
Have you done the washing up yet?
I've finally finished my essay.
We've just come back from the beach.

  1. To talk about events in the past that are not finished, they continue into the present.

How long have you lived in Seville?
I´ve lived here for 2 years.
Sally has worked here since 2010.
I have always wanted to climb Mount Everest.
She´s never liked cheese.

*Complete the questions with 1-5 (there may be more than 1 possible combination).

How long have you...?                                                     1) been to Mexico.
How many times have you...?                                          2) finished your tea, that was quick.
Have you ever...?                                                             3)been pregnant.
Have you already...?                                                        4) finished work.
Have you...yet?                                                                5) been to hospital.

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